Nikolai G. Lehtinen: Publications

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Theses

Refereed Articles

  1. Lekhtinen, N. G., G. A. Markov and S. M. Fainstein (1995), Excitation of an ionospheric Alfven resonator by a plasma wave discharge, Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii, Radiofizika, 38(3-4), 312-317. Translated in: (1995) Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, 38(3-4), 204-207, doi:10.1007/BF01037901.
  2. Lehtinen, N. G., M. Walt, U. S. Inan, T. F. Bell and V. P. Pasko (1996), γ-ray emission produced by a relativistic beam of runaway electrons accelerated by quasi-electronstatic thundercloud fields, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23(19), 2645-2648, doi:10.1029/96GL02573.
  3. Lehtinen, N. G., T. F. Bell, V. P. Pasko and U. S. Inan (1997), A two-dimensional model of runaway electron beams driven by quasi-electrostatic thundercloud fields, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24(21), 2639-2642, doi:10.1029/97GL52738.
  4. Lehtinen, N. G., T. F. Bell and U. S. Inan (1999), Monte Carlo Simulation of Runaway MeV Electron Breakdown with Application to Red Sprites and Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes, J. Geophys. Res., 104(A11), 24699-24712, November 1, doi:10.1029/1999JA900335.
  5. Inan, U. S., N. G. Lehtinen, S. J. Lev-Tov, M. P. Johnson , T. F. Bell and K. Hurley(1999), Ionization of the lower ionosphere by γ-rays from a magnetar: Detection of a low energy (3-10 keV) component, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(22), 3357-3360, doi:10.1029/1999GL010690.
  6. Lehtinen, N. G., U. S. Inan and T. F. Bell (2000), Trapped energetic electron curtains produced by thunderstorm driven relativistic runaway electrons, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27(8), 1095-1098, doi:10.1029/1999GL010765.
  7. Lehtinen, N. G., U. S. Inan and T. F. Bell (2001), Effects of Thunderstorm Driven Runaway Electrons in the Conjugate Hemisphere: Purple Sprites, Ionization Enhancements and Gamma Rays, J. Geophys. Res., 106(A12), 28841-28856, doi:10.1029/2000JA000160.
  8. Lehtinen, N. G., S. Adam, G. Gratta, T. K. Berger and M. J. Buckingham (2002), Sensitivity of an underwater acoustic array to ultra-high energy neutrinos, Astropart. Phys., 17(3), 279-292, doi:10.1016/S0927-6505(01)00158-X.
  9. Lehtinen, N. G., P. W. Gorham, A. R. Jacobson and R. A. Roussel-Dupre (2004), FORTE satellite constraints on ultrahigh energy cosmic particle fluxes, Phys. Rev. D, 69, 013008, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.69.013008.
  10. Vandenbroucke, J., G. Gratta and N. Lehtinen (2005), Experimental study of acoustic ultra-high-energy neutrino detection, Astrophys. J., 621(1), 301-312, doi:10.1086/425336.
  11. Inan, U. S. and N. G. Lehtinen (2005), Production of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes by an electromagnetic pulse from a lightning return stroke, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(19), L19818, doi:10.1029/2005GL023702.
  12. Lehtinen, N. G. and U. S. Inan (2007), Possible persistent ionization caused by giant blue jets, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L08804, doi:10.1029/2006GL029051.
  13. Inan, U. S., N. G. Lehtinen, R. C. Moore, K Hurley, S. Boggs, D. M. Smith, and G. J. Fishman (2007), Massive disturbance of the daytime lower ionosphere by the giant γ-ray flare from magnetar SGR 1806–20, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L08103, doi:10.1029/2006GL029145.
  14. Carlson, B. E., N. G. Lehtinen and U. S. Inan (2007), Constraints on terrestrial gamma ray flash production from satellite observation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L08809, doi:10.1029/2006GL029229.
  15. Lehtinen, N. G. and U. S. Inan (2008), Radiation of ELF/VLF waves by harmonically varying currents into a stratified ionosphere with application to radiation by a modulated electrojet, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A06301, doi:10.1029/2007JA012911.
  16. Gorham, P. W., N. G. Lehtinen, G. S. Varner, J. J. Beatty, A. Connolly, P. Chen, M. E. Conde, W. Gai, C. Hast, C. L. Hebert, C. Miki, R. Konecny, J. Kowalski, J. Ng, J. G. Power, K. Reil, L. Ruckman, D. Saltzberg, B. T. Stokes, and D. Walz (2008), Observations of microwave continuum emission from air shower plasmas, Phys. Rev. D, 78, 032007, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.78.032007.
  17. Carlson, B. E., N. G. Lehtinen, U. S. Inan (2008), Runaway relativistic electron avalanche seeding in the Earth's atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A10307, doi:10.1029/2008JA013210.
  18. Piddyachiy, D., U. S. Inan, T. F. Bell, N. G. Lehtinen and M. Parrot (2008), DEMETER observations of an intense upgoing column of ELF/VLF radiation excited by the HAARP HF heater, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A10308, doi:10.1029/2008JA013208.
  19. Parrot, M., U. S. Inan, and N. G. Lehtinen (2008), V-shaped VLF streaks recorded on DEMETER above powerful thunderstorms, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A10310, doi:10.1029/2008JA013336.
  20. Parrot, M., U. Inan, N. Lehtinen, E. Blanc, and J. L. Pinçon (2008), HF signatures of powerful lightning recorded on DEMETER, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A11321, doi:10.1029/2008JA013323.
  21. Lehtinen, N. G. and U. S. Inan (2009), Full-wave modeling of transionospheric propagation of VLF waves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L03104, doi:10.1029/2008GL036535.
  22. M. Parrot, U. S. Inan, N. G. Lehtinen, and J. L. Pinçon (2009), Penetration of lightning MF signals to the upper ionosphere over VLF ground‐based transmitters, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A12318, doi:10.1029/2009JA014598.
  23. Carlson, B. E., N. G. Lehtinen, and U. S. Inan (2009), Terrestrial gamma ray flash production by lightning current pulses, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A00E08, doi:10.1029/2009JA014531.
  24. Carlson, B. E., N. G. Lehtinen, and U. S. Inan (2010), Neutron production in terrestrial gamma ray flashes, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A00E19, doi:10.1029/2009JA014696.
  25. Lehtinen, N. G., R. A. Marshall, and U. S. Inan (2010), Full-wave modeling of “early” VLF perturbations caused by lightning electromagnetic pulses, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A00E40, doi:10.1029/2009JA014776.
  26. Cohen , M. B., U. S. Inan, M. Gołkowski, and N. G. Lehtinen (2010), On the generation of ELF/VLF waves for long‐distance propagation via steerable HF heating of the lower ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A07322, doi:10.1029/2009JA015170.
  27. Marshall, R. A., R. T. Newsome, N. G. Lehtinen, N. Lavassar, and U. S. Inan (2010), Optical signatures of radiation belt electron precipitation induced by ground-based VLF transmitters, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A08206, doi:10.1029/2010JA015394. See also correction.
  28. Carlson, B. E., N. G. Lehtinen, and U. S. Inan (2010), Terrestrial gamma ray flash production by active lightning leader channelsJ. Geophys. Res.115, A10324, doi:10.1029/2010JA015647.
  29. Foust, F. R., U. S. Inan, T. Bell, and N. G. Lehtinen (2010), Quasi-electrostatic whistler mode wave excitation by linear scattering of EM whistler mode waves from magnetic field-aligned density irregularitiesJ. Geophys. Res.115, A11310, doi:10.1029/2010JA015850.
  30. Golden, D. I., M. Spasojevic, F. R. Foust, N. G. Lehtinen, N. P. Meredith, and U. S. Inan (2010), Role of the plasmapause in dictating the ground accessibility of ELF/VLF chorusJ. Geophys. Res.115, A11211, doi:10.1029/2010JA015955.
  31. Cohen, M. B., U. S. Inan, D. Piddyachiy, N. G. Lehtinen, and M. Gołkowski (2011), Magnetospheric injection of ELF/VLF waves with modulated or steered HF heating of the lower ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res.116, A06308, doi:10.1029/2010JA016194.
  32. Jin, G., M. Spasojevic, M. B. Cohen, U. S. Inan, and N. G. Lehtinen (2011), The relationship between geophysical conditions and ELF amplitude in modulated heating experiments at HAARP: Modeling and experimental results, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A07310, doi:10.1029/2011JA016664.
  33. Marshall, R. A., J. Bortnik, N. Lehtinen, and S. Chakrabarti (2011), Optical signatures of lightning-induced electron precipitation, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A08214, doi:10.1029/2011JA016728.
  34. Cotts, B. R. T., U. S. Inan, and N. G. Lehtinen (2011), Longitudinal dependence of lightning-induced electron precipitation, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A10206, doi:10.1029/2011JA016581.
  35. T. Gjesteland, N. Østgaard, A. B. Collier, B. E. Carlson, M. B. Cohen, and N. G. Lehtinen (2011), Confining the angular distribution of terrestrial gamma ray flash emission, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A11313, doi:10.1029/2011JA016716.
  36. El-Lemdani Mazouz, F., J.-L. Pincon, M. Parrot, H. De Feraudy, N. G. Lehtinen, and F. Lefeuvre (2011), Asymmetric V-shaped streaks recorded on board DEMETER satellite above powerful thunderstorms, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A11321, doi:10.1029/2011JA016794.
  37. Lehtinen, N. G. (2012), A waveguide model of the return stroke channel with a “metamaterial” corona, Radio Sci., 47, RS1003, doi:10.1029/2011RS004749.
  38. Cohen, M. B., M. Golkowski, N. G. Lehtinen, U. S. Inan, and M. J. McCarrick (2012), HF beam parameters in ELF/VLF wave generation via modulated heating of the ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A05327, doi:10.1029/2012JA017585.
  39. Cohen, M. B., R. C. Moore, M. Golkowski, and N. G. Lehtinen (2012), ELF/VLF wave generation from the beating of two HF ionospheric heating sources, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A12310, doi:10.1029/2012JA018140.
  40. Cohen, M. B, N. G. Lehtinen, and U. S. Inan (2012), Models of ionospheric VLF absorption of powerful ground based transmitters, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L24101, doi:10.1029/2012GL054437.
  41. Graf, K. L., N. G. Lehtinen, M. Spasojevic, M. B. Cohen, R. A. Marshall, and U. S. Inan (2013), Analysis of experimentally validated trans-ionospheric attenuation estimates of VLF signals, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, p. 2708–2720, doi:10.1002/jgra.50228.
  42. Graf, K. L., M. Spasojevic, R. A. Marshall, N. G. Lehtinen, F. R. Foust and U. S. Inan (2013), Extended lateral heating of the nighttime ionosphere by ground‒based VLF transmitters, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, p. 7783–7797, doi:10.1002/2013JA019337.
  43. Liang, C., B. Carlson, N. Lehtinen, M. Cohen, R. A. Marshall and U. Inan (2014), Differing current and optical return stroke speeds in lightning, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, p. 2561-2567, doi:10.1002/2014GL059703.
  44. Marshall, R. A., M. Nicolls, E. Sanchez, N. G. Lehtinen and J. Neilson (2014), Diagnostics of an artificial relativistic electron beam interacting with the atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, p. 8560–8577, doi:10.1002/2014JA020427.
  45. Kabirzadeh, R., N. G. Lehtinen, and U. S. Inan (2015), Latitudinal dependence of static mesospheric E fields above thunderstorms, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, p. 4208–4215, doi:10.1002/2015GL064042.
  46. Mishin, E., B. Watkins, N. Lehtinen, B. Eliasson, T. Pedersen, and S. Grach (2016), Artificial ionospheric layers driven by high-frequency radiowaves: An assessment, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, p. 3497–3524, doi:10.1002/2015JA021823.

Conference Proceedings

  1. Lehtinen, N. G., P. W. Gorham, A. R. Jacobson, and R. A. Roussel-Dupre (2003), The FORTE VHF instrument as a high-energy cosmic ray detector, Particle Astrophysics Instrumentation, ed. P. W. Gorham, Proceedings of SPIE, 4858, pp. 296-304, doi:10.1117/12.458545.
  2. Hebert, C., P. Gorham, N. Lehtinen, M. Rosen, W. Gai, M. Conde, J. Powers and R. Konecny (2004), Detection of high energy particles using radio frequency signals, Calorimetry in Particle Physics: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference; Perugia, Italy; 29 March-2 April 2004; doi:10.1142/9789812701978_0035.
  3. Carlson, B. E., N. G. Lehtinen, and U. S. Inan (2009), Observations of terrestrial gamma-ray flash electrons, in American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings Series, 1118, N. B. Crosby, T.-Y. Huang, and M. J. Rycroft (eds.), pp. 84-91, AIP, doi:10.1063/1.3137717.
  4. Carlson, B. E., C. Liang, N. G. Lehtinen, M. B. Cohen, D. S. Lauben and U. S. Inan (2011), Examining lightning channel electrical properties with time domain fractal lightning modeling, XXXth URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium, Istanbul, Turkey, 13-20 Aug. 2011, doi:10.1109/URSIGASS.2011.6050741.
  5. Gjesteland, T., N. Ostgaard, A. B. Collier, B. E. Carlson, M. B. Cohen and N. G. Lehtinen (2011), Confining the angular distribution of TGF emission, XXXth URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium, Istanbul, Turkey, 13-20 Aug. 2011, doi:10.1109/URSIGASS.2011.6050936.
  6. Graf, K. L., U. S. Inan, M. Spasojevic, M. and N. G. Lehtinen (2011), Extended heating of the nighttime D region by very low frequency transmitters, XXXth URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium, Istanbul, Turkey, 13-20 Aug. 2011, doi:10.1109/URSIGASS.2011.6051166.
  7. Jin, G., M. Spasojevic, M. B. Cohen, U. S. Inan and N. G. Lehtinen (2011), The relationship between geophysical conditions and ELF amplitude in modulated heating experiments at HAARP: Modeling and experimental results, XXXth URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium, Istanbul, Turkey, 13-20 Aug. 2011, doi:10.1109/URSIGASS.2011.6051122.
  8. Lehtinen, N. G., T. F. Bell and U. S. Inan (2011), The contribution of artificial D-region disturbances to the ionospheric VLF wave environment, XXXth URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium, Istanbul, Turkey, 13-20 Aug. 2011, doi:10.1109/URSIGASS.2011.6051124.
  9. Lehtinen, N. G., T. F. Bell and U. S. Inan (2011), Full-wave method of calculation of electromagnetic fields in stratified media, International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA), Torino, Italy, 12-16 Sept. 2011, pp. 327-330, doi:10.1109/ICEAA.2011.6046308.
  10. Lehtinen, N. G., M. B. Cohen and U. S. Inan (2012), Metamaterial waveguide model of a return stroke channel, 2012 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA), Cape Town, South Africa, 2-7 Sept. 2012, p. 194, doi:10.1109/ICEAA.2012.6328618.
  11. Lehtinen, N. G., T. F. Bell, L. Qiu, M. B. Cohen and U. S. Inan (2012), Full wave modeling of VLF wave scattering and propagation in curvilinear stratified ionosphere, 2012 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA), Cape Town, South Africa, 2-7 Sept. 2012, p. 195-8, doi:10.1109/ICEAA.2012.6328619.
  12. Lehtinen, N. G. and U. S. Inan, Calculation of Electromagnetic Fields in Non-Planar Stratified Bi-Anisotropic and Non-Local Media, Proceedings of the “2013 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory” (EMTS), Hiroshima, Japan, May 20-24, 2013, p. 730 (unpublished).
  13. Lehtinen, N. G. U. S. Inan, and N. Østgaard, On the spatial scale of streamers, XXXIth URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium (URSI GASS), Beijing, China, 16-23 Aug. 2014, doi:10.1109/URSIGASS.2014.6929888

Conference Presentations

Non-conference talks

  1. Lehtinen, N. G., “Monte Carlo Simulations of Relativistic Runaway Electrons and Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes (TGF)”, EE350 Seminar, Stanford, March 9, 2005.
  2. Lehtinen, N. G., U. S. Inan, B. E. Carlson and T. F. Bell, “Terrestrial Gamma Flashes and Relativistic Runaway Electrons”. EE350 Seminar, Stanford, February 6, 2008.
  3. Лехтинен, Н. Г., Р. Ньюсом и Б. Карлсон, “Молниевые электромагнитные эффекты в атмосфере: переходные световые явления (TLEs, Transient Luminous Events) и геоактивные гамма вспышки (TGFs, Terrestrial Gamma Flashes)”, Приглашённый доклад на Кафедре Распространения радиоволн и радиоастрономии Радиофизического Факультета Нижегородского Государственного Университета им. Н. И. Лобачевского, Нижний Новгород, 5 октября 2010 года.
  4. Лехтинен, Н. Г., Т. Ф. Белл и У. С. Инан, “Полно-волновой метод вычисления электромагнитного поля в слоистых средах и его геофизические приложения”, Приглашённый доклад на семинаре Нижегородского научного центра, Отделение геофизических исследований ИПФ РАН, Нижний Новгород, 31 августа 2011 года.
  5. Лехтинен, Н. Г., “Моделирование и детектирование возмущений в D-слое ионосферы: события с длительным восстановлением и гамма-всплески”, Приглашённый доклад на Кафедре Распространения радиоволн и радиоастрономии Радиофизического Факультета Нижегородского Государственного Университета им. Н. И. Лобачевского, Нижний Новгород, 16 ноября 2012 года.
  6. Лехтинен, Н. Г., “Приложения полно-волнового метода: излучение модулированного экваториального электроджета и конверсия электромагнитных ВЧ волн в ленгмюровские”, Приглашённый доклад на Кафедре Распространения радиоволн и радиоастрономии Радиофизического Факультета Нижегородского Государственного Университета им. Н. И. Лобачевского, Нижний Новгород, 13 мая 2013 года.

Popular publications

These are not written by me, but are related to my research.
  1. "1998 starburst more powerful than 3,000 years of sunshine, Stanford and UC Berkeley report" (University of California, Berkeley, News release, 12/14/99) [html].
  2. "Pop Goes The Neutrino" (New Scientist, April 14, 2001)
  3. "Neutrino Whispers in the Sea" (Science, June 3, 2002) [pdf]
  4. "Neutrino Hunters Borrow Military Ears--and Eyes" (Science, October 4, 2002)
  5. Umran Inan, "Gamma Rays Made on Earth" (Science, February 18, 2005)
  6. (a highlight of the above Science article) "De bouffées de rayons gamma dans l'atmosphère de la Terre" (Le Figaro, February 22, 2005)[pdf]
  7. Alexander V. Gurevich and Kirill P. Zybin, "Runaway Breakdown and the Mysteries of Lightning" (Physics Today, May 2005)
  8. Bob Swarup, Cosmic rays offer clue to lightning, physicsworld.com, Jun 5, 2009
Wikipedia articles:
  1. Terrestrial gamma-ray flash
  2. Runaway breakdown

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Last updated 2010-03-15